1.Mineral resources

Mineral resources are the material basis for the development of human society, and are the focus of the game of all countries in the world. The distribution of global mineral resources is extremely unbalanced. This unbalance has shaped the distribution pattern of global mineral resources today, and also affects the current world economic pattern and geopolitical pattern.

Distribution of Mineral Resources

There are about 80 kinds of minerals that are widely used in the world, including 9 kinds of iron, copper, bauxite, lead, zinc, nickel, phosphate, tin and manganese, which have the characteristics of large output value and large international trade volume. Status is very important. The concentration of mineral mining in the world is obvious, with 70-75% concentrated in more than 10 countries, especially a few industrialized developed countries. Russia and the United States are the two countries with the largest mining industries in the world, as are Australia and South Africa. In developing countries, China, Chile, Zambia, Zaire, Peru, Mexico, Brazil and Argentina have developed and large-scale mining industries.

This article describes the distribution of several major minerals.

2.Global distribution of iron ore

With the increasing demand for iron ore in the world, the exploration of iron ore in the world has reached a new climax after many years of silence, and a number of large iron ore have been discovered. At present, there are about 525 iron ore mines in production, under construction, expansion and exploration stage in the world, with a total of 137.7 billion tons of iron ore resources.

Global distribution of iron ore

The world's top 10 countries with iron ore reserves

The world's iron ore reserves are 170 billion tons (ore), and the iron content is 81 billion tons. The total amount of iron ore resources in the world is estimated to be more than 800 billion tons (ore volume), and the iron content exceeds 230 billion tons. Australia, Brazil, Russia, China, India, the United States, Ukraine, Canada, Venezuela, Sweden, Kazakhstan, Mauritania, Iran, South Africa and Mexico are the world's largest iron ore resource countries.

World iron ore reserves

3. Distribution of global copper mines

The world's copper resources are relatively rich, and they are concentrated in the Americas, central Africa and northern Asia. In terms of countries, it is highly concentrated in more than 10 countries.

Countries with proven reserves greater than 50 million tons include Chile, the United States and Zambia. Among them, Chile's reserves are about 150 million tons, accounting for 23.4% of the world's proven reserves. A large copper mine - Chuquicamata Mine (with reserves of 69.35 million tons) and the world's second largest copper mine - Eltenient Mine (with reserves of about 67.76 million tons), known as the "Kingdom of Copper" .

Distribution of world copper reserves

Types of copper mines in the world

The world's famous copper mines mainly include Chile's Escondida Copper Mine, Chile's Los Blanches and Andina Copper Mine, Chile's El Teniente Copper Mine, Argentina's Jose Maria Copper, Gold and Silver Mine, Cobra copper-gold mine in Panama, and Duolong exploration area in Tibet.

Chile's Escondida Copper Mine

4. Global bauxite distribution

Bauxite is the main raw material for the extraction of aluminum metal. At present, the world's bauxite production is more than 87 million tons. Australia, Guinea and Jamaica produce more than 10 million tons per year. In addition, countries with more bauxite production include Russia, Brazil, Suriname, Guyana, Venezuela, India and Indonesia.

Global bauxite distribution

The world's bauxite resources are mainly distributed in: Africa, Oceania, South America and the Caribbean and Asia. Bauxite deposits can be roughly divided into two types according to the properties of the underlying bedrock: laterite-type bauxite deposits on silicate rocks and karst-type bauxite deposits on carbonate rocks.

5. Global distribution of lead-zinc mines

The world's proven lead reserves are 89 million tons. The countries with more reserves are Australia, China, Russia, Peru, Mexico and the United States, which together account for 86.9% of the world's lead reserves. Other countries with more reserves are India, Poland, Bolivia and Sweden, etc. According to the current world lead mine production estimates, the existing lead reserves are guaranteed for less than 20 years.

Global distribution of lead-zinc mines

6. Global distribution of gold mines

The world's gold reserves are 54,000t, and the reserves are mainly distributed in Australia, South Africa, Russia, Chile, Indonesia and the United States.

Global distribution of gold mines

7. Global distribution of silver mines

The world's silver reserves are 520,000 tons, and the reserves are mainly distributed in Australia, Peru, Poland, Chile, China, Mexico, the United States, Bolivia, Canada and other countries. The reserves of the above 9 countries account for about 90% of the world's total reserves. Among them, Australia's silver reserves ranked first in the world, about 90,000 tons, accounting for about 17% of the world's silver reserves.

Top countries in the world for silver mines

World famous silver mining company

The world's famous silver mining companies mainly include Mexico Fresnillo Company, Australia BHP Billiton Mining Company, Poland Poland Copper Mining Metallurgical Industry Group Company, Switzerland Xstrata Company, Canada Gold Group, Russia Pelemet Company, Pan American Bank of Canada, Buenaventura Mining Company of Peru, Coeur d'Alene Mining Company of the United States, Sumitomo Corporation of Japan.

mining company


1. The global distribution of mineral resources is uneven, and different mineral distributions have different characteristics, which cannot be changed by human beings.

2. It is impossible for any country to fully rely on the development of its own resources to meet its needs, and can only meet its needs through the global allocation of mineral resources.

3. The unbalanced distribution of global mineral resources and the unbalanced economic development have formed the supply and demand pattern of mineral resources in the world today, which in turn affects the global geopolitical pattern.

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