Main causes of blasting accidents
Blasting operation is an important part of the whole mining safety management work, and it is also a weak link that is prone to harmful factors in safe production. The main hazards of blasting are blasting flying rocks, blasting vibration and air shock waves. The main links of blasting accidents:
1. The layout of the blast holes is unreasonable, and the resistance line is too small.
2. When a blind shot occurs, it is not handled according to the operating procedures.
3. The plugging length of the blast hole is not enough when charging, and the charging quality is not good.
4. Do not charge according to the design.
5. Failure to be vigilant as required.
6. There are adjacent mines, and the blasting time is not uniform.
7. Violation of regulations.
Measures to prevent blasting accidents
1. Strictly implement the "Blasting Safety Regulations" (GB6722), "Regulations on the Safety Management of Civilian Explosives" and relevant national regulations to ensure the safety of blasting equipment from purchase, transportation to storage and use, improve the storage and use system of blasting equipment, and clarify The responsibilities of the custodians, blasters, and security guards are carried out with certificates to prevent the loss of blasting equipment to the society.
2. Personnel engaged in blasting work must be trained on blasting safety technical knowledge by relevant departments above the county (city) district level, pass the exam, and hold a "Blasting Worker's Work Certificate", and practice for 3 years under the guidance of experienced blasters Months to carry out the blasting work independently. Blasting operators must understand and be familiar with the properties, usage methods and safety operating procedures of blasting materials, and must not operate in violation of regulations.
3. Establish and improve the blasting operation rules and regulations, formulate implementation rules and operating procedures according to the "Blasting Safety Regulations" and the actual situation of the mine, and prohibit the purchase and use of unqualified blasting materials.
4. Stope blasting operations can only be carried out in day shifts. When charging, irrelevant personnel must leave the blasting site. Before blasting, loudspeakers and alarms should be used to notify all personnel working in the dangerous area and downwind, personnel not related to blasting operations, nearby residents and passers-by. According to the blasting design and the specific conditions around the site, determine the warning boundary of the blasting danger zone and set up sentry posts. Each sentry post should be within the sight range of adjacent sentry posts. In order to prevent the blasting personnel from being harmed, the avoiding personnel must hide outside the blasting danger zone.
5. After blasting, the blaster must enter the blasting site according to the specified waiting time. Check for dangerous stones and blind shots. Other personnel must wait until the alert is lifted before they can enter.
6. Persons who have one of the following conditions are prohibited from carrying out blasting operations:
a. There are no effective protective measures during blasting, which endangers the safety of equipment and buildings;
b. There is no warning on the edge of the danger zone, and irrelevant personnel have not withdrawn from the danger zone;
c. The blasting preparation work does not meet the requirements of the "Blasting Safety Regulations";
d. Thunderstorms, foggy days, dusk, night and other adverse weather conditions.
Preventive measures for accidents caused by nonel detonation
1. There must be no dead knots in the detonating tube network, and no joints in the holes. The blasting materials used in the same working face should be products of the same factory and the same batch number.
2. After the detonator is inserted into the drug roll, the detonator and the drug bag should be fastened with a string. When processing the priming charge, the detonator must be placed in the reserved hole of the priming charge. It is forbidden to be exposed outside the primer column.
3. The ground surface detonating tube detonation network connection shall be carried out gradually from one end of the detonation area after all the charge filling work is completed.
4. When using a detonator to detonate the detonation network, it is forbidden to connect the end of the detonator (energy-concentrating hole) in the direction of detonator transmission.
5. After laying the detonating network, in order to prevent the surrounding stray current from affecting the network, check the surroundings carefully, and ensure that there are no metal objects around, and then bury the surface detonating detonator with fine slag.
6. Cut off 5cm backwards at the seals at both ends of each roll of detonating tube before use.
7. When connecting two detonating tubes with a sleeve, the end faces of the two detonating tubes are cut into vertical planes, contact each other, and ensure that they will not be pulled apart.
8. It is forbidden to wear chemical fiber clothes for blasting equipment processing and blasting operations.
Prevention and treatment measures for blind shot accidents
Prevention of Blind Shot Accidents
1. Select qualified explosives, detonators and other detonating materials.
2. Clean up the accumulated water in the blast hole during construction.
3. When charging and blocking, it must be done carefully to prevent damage to the priming charge.
Handling Measures for Blind Shot Accidents
1. If a blind shot is found or suspected, it should be reported immediately and dealt with in a timely manner. If it cannot be dealt with in time, obvious signs should be set up nearby, and corresponding safety measures should be taken.
2. After the blind shot is produced, the site should be blocked immediately. The original construction personnel should find out the reason for the rejection of the explosion according to the specific situation of the charge, and take corresponding treatment measures. , should be on alert at the border of the danger zone. No other work is allowed in the danger zone.
3. To deal with the blind gun, the water flushing method should be used or another parallel hole should be drilled for detonation at a distance not less than ten times the diameter of the gun hole from the blind gun hole. The blasting parameters are determined by the blasting engineering technicians and approved by the blasting leader.
4. When a blind shot occurs in electric detonation, the power supply must be cut off immediately, and the blasting network should be short-circuited in time.
5. After the blind shot treatment, the blast pile should be carefully inspected; the remaining blasting equipment should be recycled and disposed of. Preventive measures should be taken before it is determined whether there are residual blasting materials in the blast pile.
6. The registration card must be filled out by the processor every time the blind shot is processed.
Preventive measures for accidents caused by blasting flying rocks
1. Before blasting, it is necessary to calculate the flying rock distance and set a reasonable warning range.
2. Choose reasonable explosive unit consumption and blasting parameters.
3. Ensure sufficient plug length and quality.
4. Take certain protective measures, such as partial coverage or building protective walls.
Preventive measures for gun smoke poisoning accidents
1. Strengthen the quality management of explosives and regularly inspect the quality of explosives.
2. Do not use expired explosives.
3. Strengthen the waterproof and moisture-proof of explosives, ensure the quality of plugging, and avoid incomplete explosive reactions of explosives.
4. When blasting, personnel should be in the upwind direction.
5. After the blasting, you must wait for the gun smoke to clear before entering the working face to prevent the gun smoke from being poisoned.