1.What is mining

Meaning of mining

Mining refers to the extraction of naturally occurring minerals such as solids (such as coal and minerals), liquids (such as crude oil), or gases (such as natural gas). This includes underground or above-ground mining, the operation of mines, and generally all ancillary work performed at or near a mine site to process raw materials, such as grinding, beneficiation and processing. It also includes the preparations required to make the ingredients available for sale. However, it does not include water storage, purification and distribution, as well as geological exploration and construction engineering activities.

What is mining

Mining and mining are all concentrated mineral deposits, and the mined substances include bauxite, coal, diamonds, iron, rare metals, lead, limestone, nickel, phosphorus, rock salt, tin, uranium and molybdenum, etc. The raw materials for agricultural production are all provided by minerals.


Development of mining

The development of the human mining industry is linked to the technological revolution. Stone Age mining used stone tools, wood and bone, and underground mining was supported by wood. The key points of force for mining tools and supports in the Bronze Age were replaced with bronze, and in the Iron Age with iron. The early explosive black powder appeared in the late Iron Age. The first and second industrial revolutions initiated by Western capitalist countries not only brought human society from the agricultural era into the "age of steam" and "electric age", but also promoted emerging industries such as mining, metallurgy, oil extraction and refining. of rapid development. At that time, many mining companies also appeared, but most of them started from the mining and beneficiation industry or smelting industry. Especially in the early stage of the company's development, due to the limitations of mining technology and lack of sufficient funds, most of them chose to implement single-type specialization, The localized business model focuses on the exploration and mining business of a single mineral or the smelting business of a single mineral.

early mining companies

2.The basics of mining technology

Mining science and technology are based on theories of rock crushing, loose material transport, fluid transport, mine rock mechanics and mining systems engineering. It is necessary to use the latest achievements in mathematics, physics, mechanics, chemistry, geology, systems science, electronic computers and other disciplines. At the end of the 19th century, on the basis of the high degree of mechanization already achieved, the mining industry will further improve its production capacity and equipment utilization by improving the design, shape, material, manufacturing process, inspection method and maintenance system of fully mechanized mining equipment. At the same time, the mine will realize automation and remote control in many links such as lifting, transportation, drainage, ventilation, and gas monitoring. Both underground and open-pit mines will realize centralized automatic management and monitoring by computer. In some countries, robots have been tested in underground mining working faces, and mining of minerals that cause greater damage to personnel.


3.Mining method

Mines are classified according to their product properties, including metallurgical mines (ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, rare earth elements, radioactive elements, etc.) and non-metallic mines (coal mines, stones, clay, etc.); mining methods can be roughly divided into open-pit mining, underground mining and Liquid mining 3 basic mining methods.

① Open pit mining

That is, under open-pit conditions, shallower ores will be buried and mined from pit open-pit mines, hillside open-pit mines or stripped open-pit mines. This involves digging a series of sequential trenches. Sand barge mining is also a type of stripping open pit mine, which is excavated from barges.

Open pit mining

② Underground mining

It is to mine the deeply buried ore underground by natural support, artificial support and caving mining methods.

Underground mining

③ Liquid mining

Also known as special mining method. It is to extract useful substances from natural brine, lake, ocean or groundwater; dissolve useful minerals (or melt with hot water), and then pump the solution to the ground for extraction; use hot water to drive, gas drive or burn , which drives minerals from one wellbore to another wellbore. Most liquid mining is carried out by drilling.

liquid mining


For a specific deposit, select a reasonable mining method according to geological conditions and rock mechanics data. Ideally, the selected mining method can achieve maximum economic benefits under the requirements of production safety and proper extraction of useful minerals. If the mining method is improperly selected, it will affect the technical indicators of mine production and economic benefits for a long time. On the other hand, with the continuous exploitation of underground minerals by human beings, the mining grade is from high to low, and resources are in short supply, so we must choose appropriate mining and beneficiation methods, carry out comprehensive mining, comprehensive utilization, and improve the utilization rate of mineral resources and Recovery rate, reduce the loss rate and dilution rate of ore.

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